(Originally posted in r/AskHistorians, but it wasn't quite specific enough.)
The 19th and 20th centuries have seen the proliferation of the nation state model of a country around the world. From the various American independence movements, to the collapse of contiguous land empires in central and eastern Europe, to the dissolution of colonial empires in Asia and Africa, we hear all about how peoples yearning to be free have thrown off the yolk of oppression.
However, I'm curious to know: what peoples did not succeed in creating a unique state to serve their needs? I'm particularly thinking of groups with a long history of contact with nationalism who have documented attempts at revolt, rebellion, or other movements for a nationalist cause which failed to result in an accompanying state. Some examples may be Catalonian or Sàmi nationalism.
As a follow up question, how many of these nationalistic movements are not around today? Certainly in the case of Catalonian nationalism, it continues into modern day, but which, if any, movements have been rolled up so completely that they are reserved exclusively for the history books?
Source: reddit post